Research in the Teaching of English Article Companion Coding Chart


Here we share our codebook for the paper "English Teacher Candidates Developing dialogically Organized Instructional Practices," published in Research in the Teaching of English in 2013 (Volume 47, Issue 3). The paper provides an overview of the planning moves, dialogic discourse indicators, and student participation in the hundreds of video posts we coded. For the analysis presented in the article, we coded all planning documents. transcripts, and reflections posted with videos.


Code
Criteria
Example
Instructional Focus
*Categorizes the content that is the focus of the lesson
Novel study, short story
Content
*What is being taught?
*List texts, focal concepts, etc.
*List where in content if applicable (e.g., beginning, Act III, etc.)
To Kill a Mockingbird, subject-verb agreement, imagery in poetry, character development
Activities
*List of procedures from lesson plan
1. Grammar review
2. Group prep for discussion
3. Discussion about characterization in To Kill a Mockingbird
4. Remind students to bring draft of paper tomorrow.
Transcribed portion
*What activities are the focus of the video clip?
*If possible, refer to number in activities list
3. Discussion about characterization in To Kill a Mockingbird
Dialogic Tools
*Any tools or resources intended to facilitate dialogic classroom interactions
1. anticipation guide
2. Four Corners activity
3. “I wonder” questions
4. pair/share prior to whole class conversation
Question Codes


Teacher Authentic Question
*Authentic means that the person asking the question does not have a preconceived answer in mind. Authenticity often cannot be determined until the entire exchange plays out and teacher responds to student answer.
*The question must be answered
*Repaired, repeated, or rephrased questions prior to student response is counted as one question
*Repeat or rephrased question to new student after student response gets coded as new question
*Code even if the substantive nature of the question is implied, rather than explicit (ellipsis)
--“Is Atticus Finch a good father?”
--“Would you want Atticus to be your Dad?”
--“Cindy?” (repeated question to subsequent students)
Teacher Nonauthentic Question
*Nonauthentic means that the person asking the question does have a preconceived answer
--“Who killed Tom Robinson?”
Teacher Uptake
*Teacher incorporates a previous response (can include language or ideas) into subsequent question
*To qualify as uptake, question must incorporate previous student answer, not previous teacher question
*Often uptake can be identified through pronouns (this, that, maybe)
*Code even if the substantive nature of the question is implied, rather than explicit (ellipsis)
*Do not code as “uptake” if the follow-up question is a test question with a right answer. (Both T-U and T-AQ code should be applied if relevant).
--“Why wouldn’t you want Atticus to be your dad?”
--“Why do you think that?”
--“And then what happened?”


--“Does anyone want to respond to that?”, “Why?”, “Because?”
Student Question
*Do not code procedural questions.
*Student questions are usually authentic questions
Examples of what not to code:“How many pages does this narrative need to be?”
“Does that count as homework?”
Participation Codes


Total Student Participation
(Total # of students who participated in exchange)
*Only count a student if they have uttered one or more words
*code choral response as 1 speaker first time it occurs, and not again after that
*code an unnamed student as 1 speaker first time it occurs, and only after that if you’re sure it’s a different speaker
10 (if 10 different students speak during the exchange)
Response pattern
*Records the pattern of turn-taking.
*T-S-S-S or T-S-T-S or other.

Revoicing
Teacher revoices (rephrases, repeats) student comment
*the material revoiced can be a student response to a question
*It is possible that revoicing and uptake might both be coded in a teacher question
*If teacher adds on to point, then it’s not revoicing
John: he doesn’t think stuff should be solved with violence. He thinks it should be solved with words.
Ms. V [nods]: He thinks things should be solved with words instead of violence


Note: Criteria for question codings were adapted from Nystrand, 2004.

Caughlan, S., Juzwik, M., Borsheim-Black, C., Kelly, S., & Fine, J. (2013) English teacher candidates developing dialogically organized instructional practices. Research in the Teaching of English, 47(3), 212-246.