An important concept developed through our research is that of dialogic tools, which we define in Caughlan, Juzwik, Borsheim-Black, Kelly, & Fine (2013) as "those practical tools mobilized in teacher planning and practice withpotential to mediate dialogically organized instruction in a given classroom situation." We identified 25 distinct dialogic tools, defined in Table 2, below. We also divided them into teacher-led and student-ledcategories based on the extent to which they assigned teachers or students responsibility for directing classroom interaction.
The analysis indicates that English teacher candidates involved in VBRR planned for dialogic instruction and disrupted historically default participation and questioning patterns associated with recitation.